Penpol

Blood Donation

1. Who can donate blood?
2. How often can one donate blood?
3. Is there any danger in donating blood?
4. When is blood transfusion required?
5. Can I donate my own blood before undergoing an operation?
6. What are the advantages of donating my own blood?
7. Can my blood be stored indefinitely for future use?
8. What will happen if my blood group is not available at the blood transfusion service?
9. What can I do to ensure that my blood group will be available when needed?
10. Should I purchase blood?

11. How long does it take to transfuse a unit of blood?
12. Can I develop a serious reaction to blood transfusion with blood from another person?
13. Who cannot donate blood?
14. What is Blood and what are its main components?
15. Why use leuko depleted blood?
16. What are the factors that influence the filtration results?
17. What are the indications for leukodepleted blood?
18. What is the advantage of polyurethane filter over polyester filters?
19. Can I filter RBC components through an IMUGARD III-PL?
20. How many units of platelets can be leukoreduced with 1 number IMUGARD III-PL?
21. Can an IMUGARD III-RC filter be used for more that 1 unit of the RBC concentrate?
22. Is bedside filtration better than laboratory filtration?


1. Who can donate blood?

Every healthy adult between the age of 18 and 60 years can donate blood.


2. How often can one donate blood?

It is safe to donate blood once every three months.


3. Is there any danger in donating blood?

There is virtually no danger since:

Only healthy persons are encouraged to donate blood.

Only sterile needles are used to collect blood to prevent transmission of diseases in the process of donating blood.

Blood donation takes only a few minutes. The donor is made to rest and given refreshment after the donation.


4. When is blood transfusion required?

Blood transfusion is mainly required after heavy blood loss during surgery, accidents or childbirth. It is also given to treat bleeding, shock and severe anaemia.

If you have surgery, you may lose some blood. In situations where blood loss is small, patients are given glucose or saline solution instead of blood. However, if a large volume of blood is lost, blood transfusion is required.

If the bleeding is due to low counts of platelets, as in dengue fever, transfusion of these special cells is required.

If you have anaemia, indicated by a low level of haemoglobin, the body does not produce enough red cells to carry oxygen. This could lead to tiredness and breathlessness. Treatment with vitamins and medicines may be effective in mild to moderate cases. If the anaemia is severe, transfusion of blood or red cells may be required for quick recovery.


5. Can I donate my own blood before undergoing an operation?

Yes, you can. Your donated blood will be tested, stored and subsequently used for you.
For certain operations, you may be required to donate upto 4 units (each of 350 ml) of blood at weekly intervals. This can be done a few weeks before the planned operation. However, you will not be able to donate blood, even for yourself, if you have anaemia, fever, high blood pressure or a heart ailment.


6. What are the advantages of donating my own blood?

It is the safest source of blood. It prevents the risk of possible reactions to another person's blood, transmission of diseases and allergies


7. Can my blood be stored indefinitely for future use?

No, blood cannot be stored indefinitely. Usually the collected blood is stored for only 35 days or 42 days depending on storage.


8. What will happen if my blood group is not available at the blood transfusion service?

One of the important functions of a blood transfusion service is to make safe blood available to meet the needs of all patients with different blood groups. However, there could be a shortage of a specific blood group. In such situations, routine operations may have to be postponed till the particular blood group is available.


9. What can I do to ensure that my blood group will be available when needed?

It is very important that as many healthy persons as possible volunteer to donate blood. This will help in ensuring a safe and adequate supply of blood for all patients. You can donate blood if you are between the age of 18 and 60 years. Encourage your healthy friends and relatives to donate regularly voluntary.


10. Should I purchase blood?

No. It is not safe to buy blood from commercial blood banks. These blood banks usually collect blood from professional blood donors who may be in poor health. Also, such commercial banks may not always follow all the standardised procedures required for safe blood transfusion. Ask your treating doctor to help you in arranging for blood from a regional blood centre or a government approved blood bank. Always check whether the blood bank has a valid Blood Bank License


11. How long does it take to transfuse a unit of blood?

This depends on the condition for which transfusion is being given. If the patient is being transfused to replace blood for sudden blood loss, one unit of blood may be given rapidly in about 10-15 minutes. However, if blood transfusion is being given for anaemia, it may take over 3-4 hours.


12. Can I develop a serious reaction to blood transfusion with blood from another person?

Not usually. People differ from each other with respect to their blood groups. Before blood transfusion is given, a sample of the blood is tested and cross-matched with a suitable donor unit. These tests reduce the risk of any serious reaction.
Of course, no medical procedure is absolutely safe. However, the risk of reaction to blood transfusion is very low. Most blood transfusion reactions, if they occur, are mild. So, there is no cause for worry. Blood Transfusion plays an important role in modern medical care. For people undergoing frequent transfusion they can go in for leukodepleted.


13. Who cannot donate blood?

A person who is anaemic, i.e. one who has a haemoglobin level of less than 12/DL.

A person who has suffered from Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, AIDS and sexually-transmitted diseases.

A person who has multiple casual sexual partners.

A person who is addicted to narcotic drugs.


14. What is Blood and what are its main components?

Blood Cells Are Produced In Bone Marrow

Red cells, white cells and platelets are made in the marrow of bones, especially the vertebrae, ribs, hips, skull and sternum. These essential blood cells fight infection, carry oxygen and help control bleeding.

Plasma Carries Blood Cells
Plasma is a pale yellow mixture of water, proteins and salts. One of the functions of plasma is to act as a carrier for blood cells, nutrients, enzymes and hormones.

Red Cells Deliver Oxygen
Red cells are disc-shaped cells containing haemoglobin, which enables the cells to pick up and deliver oxygen to all parts of the body.

White Cells Defend The Body
White cells are the body's primary defense against infection. They can move out of the blood stream and reach tissues being invaded.

Platelets Help Control Bleeding
Platelets are small cells in the blood that control bleeding. They form clusters to plug small holes in blood vessels and assist in the clotting process.

 

COMPONENT MAJOR INDICATIONS ACTION
Whole Blood Symptomatic anaemia with arge volume deficit Restoration of oxygen-  carrying capacity, restoration of blood
volume
Red Blood Cells Symptomatic anaemia with large volume deficit Restoration of oxygen-carrying  capacity, restoration of blood volume
Red Blood Cells Symtomatic anaemia Restoration of oxygen-carrying capacity
Red Blood Cells, Leukocytes  Removed (white blood cells) Symptomatic anaemia , febrile reactions from  leukocyte antibodies Restoration of oxygen-carrying capacity
Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline  added Symptomatic anaemia with volume deficit Restoration of oxygen-carrying capacity
Fresh Frozen Plasma Deficit of labile and stable plasma coagulation
factors and TTP
Source of labile and non-labile plasma  factors
Liquid Plasma and Plasma Deficit of stable coagulation factors Source of labile and non-labile factors
Cryoprecipitated AHF Hemophilia A, von Willebrand's  Disease Hypofibrinogenemia Factor XIII  deficiency Provides Factor VIII, fibrinogen,vWF,and  Factor XIII
Platelets; Platelets Pheresis Bleeding from thrombo- cytopenia or  platelet function abnormality Improves hemostasis
Granulocytes, Pheresis (white  blood cells) Neutropenia with infection Provides granulocytes

 

LEUKODEPLETION

15. Why use leuko depleted blood?

Blood transfusions can literally mean the difference between life and death for some patients. But transfusions are not without risks. The most frequent complications range from fever to an overall decline in the body's immune system, which increases risk for infection. Ironically, the culprit responsible for these complications are white cells or leukocytes, the very agents in blood that attack and destroy invading organisms like bacteria. Removing white cells from blood before it is given to a patient greatly reduces risk from these complications.


16. What are the factors that influence the filtration results?

The various factors that influence the filtration results are:

Blood Rheology

WBC Number and function

Plasma Protein content

Platelets number and function

Holding time before processing

Presence of abnormal hemoglobins

Additive solutions

Processing method of whole blood

Type of equipment used for the processing

Storage conditions

Age of the products


17. What are the indications for leukodepleted blood?

The indications for leukodepleted blood can be classified as: recommended; could be used and not recommended

a. Recommended Indications

Prevention or delay of Non Hemolytic Febrile Transfusion Reaction (NHFTR) in transfusion dependent patients

Treatment of patients with 2 or more consecutive Non Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction

Newly diagnosed leukemia patients who are candidates for bone marrow transplant

Immunoincompetent CMV negative patients, when CMV negative blood is not available

Intrauterine transfusion of cellular blood components

b. Possible Indications

To prevent or delay clinically significant bleeding due to immunologically medicated refractoriness to platelet transfusion

To abolish or reduce the ill effect of recurrent NHFTR to platelet transfusion

Prevention of immune modulation due to transfusion of cellular blood components to surgical patients, leading to increased rate of post-operative infection

Prevention of immune modulation due to transfusion to cancer patients undergoing surgery, leading to higher rate of cancer recurrence

Prevention of CMV transmission due to transfusion of cellular blood components to immuno-incompetent CMV positive patients

Prevention of accelerated rate of progression of HIV infection by immune modulation, due to transfusion of cellular blood components

Prevention of HLA alloimmunisation due to transfusion of cellular blood components to patients awaiting renal transplantation, with or without an initial programme of white blood cell-containing transfusion.

 

c. Not recommended Indications

Prevention of transfusion related GVHD. Irradiation of cellular blood components remain the standard treatment

Prevention of acute post transfusion lung injury

Prevention of transfusion related transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C

Filtration of Fresh Frozen Plasma and other plasma components or cryoprecipitate

To reduce HTLV transmission by cellular blood components


18. What is the advantage of polyurethane filter over polyester filters?

Sl No Characteristic Polyurethane
(IMUGARD Filter)
Polyester
1 Biocompatibility Superior due to neutral charge Inferior as they are positively and negatively charged
2 Leukoreduction technique Mostly sieving mechanism Adhesion and Indirect adhesion
3 Recovery of treated products High level of recovery Less compared to polyurethane filters
4 Age of the product Efficiency of filter independent of the age of the product Efficiency dependent on the age of the product

 

19. Can I filter RBC components through an IMUGARD III-PL?

Leukocyte filers are designed to be used with a specific blood component and must be used for indications listed on the product label. For example, platelet filter must be used for filtration of platelet and RBC filters must be used for the filtration of RBC (whole blood).

 

20. How many units of platelets can be leukoreduced with 1 number IMUGARD III-PL?

10 units of platelet can be leukoreduced with 1 IMUGARD III-PL

 

21. Can an IMUGARD III-RC filter be used for more that 1 unit of the RBC concentrate?

Yes, but the efficiency of the second filtration will be considerably reduced. Hence it is recommended to use 1 filter for only 1 unit of RBC concentrate.

 

22. Is bedside filtration better than laboratory filtration?

No. As the storage period of components increases cytokines are released by the leukocytes, which are responsible for the transfusion reactions. Thus lab type filtration helps in greater reduction of leukocytes and prevention of transfusion reaction.

Basic about Blood

Today, Blood Transfusion Services constitute a crucial part of any healthcare delivery system. Adequate and safe supply of blood and blood components is essential, to enable a wide range of critical care procedures to be carried out in hospitals.

India has an annual requirement of approximately, 5.00 Mn. units of blood. The actual collection is only approximately, 3.50 Mn. units of blood.

The solution therefore is to increase the number of regular voluntary donors in India.

What we strive to achieve :

  • To create awareness and educate the public on the need for regular and voluntary blood donation.
  • To build a network to provide safe blood to needy patients.
  • To safe guard the interest and welfare of the blood donors.
  • To promote voluntary blood donation among all sections of society.
  • To reach out to peripheral rural areas so as to make them self-sufficient (rural blood donor forums) .

ACTIVITIES

  • Blood Motivation Seminars, Blood Grouping Sessions.
  • Blood Donation Camps in association with Voluntary Donor Forums.
  • Publication and Distribution of Promotional Material on Voluntary Donation.
  • Networking of existing Forums and Institutions.
  • Recognition of Blood Donors/Blood Donor Organizations; Annual Conferences/workshops to motivate Voluntary Blood Donation.

PR Blood Donation

PR Blood Donation Club 25

Terumo Penpol Blood Collection Monitor Brochure

PR VBD Promotion

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